A tablet press is machinery that compresses powder into tablets of uniform shape and size. A tablet press works on the principle of compression. The basic structure of any tablet press consists of two punches and a die which is called the station. The upper and lower punches strike together in the die and the outcome is tablet formulation.
Reasons for evolution in a tablet press
- Development of innovations and research in this field due to increase in population and demand for tablets
- Development of stringent regulations to comply with CGMP( Current Good Manufacturing Process)
Working Principle of Tablet Press – This is a two-step action where the bottom punch is lowered in the die and creates a cavity there. Any excess powder is scraped off while the top punch comes down in contact with the powder. High force is applied on the compression rolls to help the granulated material be bonded and take the shape of a hard tablet. After this step, the lower punch raises itself and ejects the tablet out. The Tablet Compression Machines use the hydraulic pressure mechanism. Unreduced pressure is applied through the static liquid to all directions with the same proportion. One can also change the force applied.
A few types of tablet press with their principle of working is given below-
Rotary Tablet Press– This is a device that has a rotating turret that holds many punches and tooling stations that rotate to compress granules and powder to tablets of uniform weight. In this kind of press, compaction force is applied in the middle which is also called the accordion-type of compression.
Lab Tablet Press – The Lab tablet press is useful in manufacturing round and irregular shapes of tablets. It is a suitable form of press for small-scale production. A good feature of this press is that it can adjust the speed of turret rotation, depth of filling material, and the thickness of tablets during its operational course.
Single Rotary Tablet Press and the Double Rotary Press – This is again an entry-level machine designed for small batches and used in pharmaceuticals, food, chemical, and confectionaries. There are double rotary tablet press and the difference between the former and latter is that the double-sided rotary press produces double output. This is because it has two sets of discharging chutes and a feeding system.
Slugging Tablet Press – This tablet press is used where a pre-compression process is required for extra-large tablets also called slugs. They are of variable weight due to the sluggish nature of the drug powder. These slugs are then broken down into granules to again recompress to get the final output. The bolus tablet press is another tablet press that is used for the production of simple and precise tablets from powder.
Usages – There is a high-speed tablet press that can increase the output as desired. They even allow changing formats and products in a flexible and versatile way. Similarly the Pharmaceutical Tablet press provides complete streamlined control to the mass production of tablets. It can handle different tablet shapes and materials. A lot of modern manufacturers also use the Mini tablet press which is a version of a rotary tablet press machine ideal for small-scale production. These are crucial when wastage is to be avoided especially when high-value ingredients go into the making of tablets.
The tablet compression machines are great tools to help manufacturers achieve a high utilization ratio. The multi-station tablet machines use a minimal amount of labour and decrease wastage. This accurate piece of equipment can handle a variety of ingredients and a big advantage for several industries.